Home

Cud meaning in Bengali

cuds - Bengali Meaning - cuds Meaning in Bengali at

Cuds meaning in Bengali - জাবর; রোমন্থন; ; cud; rumination; | English - Bangla & English (E2B) Online Dictionary. ইংরেজি - বাংলা Online অভিধান। Providing the maximum meaning of a word by combining the best sources with us Cud, meaning of Cud with pronunciation, Online English to Bengali and Bengali to Bengali/English Dictionary | একই সাথে চারটি আলাদা অভিধান সংযোজিত হয়েছে এ সাইটে।বাংলা থেকে বাংলা, বাংলা থেকে ইংরেজী, ইংরেজী থেকে বাংলা.

Definitions and Meaning of quid in English quid noun. a wad of something chewable as tobacco Synonyms: chaw, chew, cud, plug, wad; something for something; that which a party receives (or is promised) in return for something he does or gives or promise Cud Meaning and Kinyarwanda to English Translation. Categories: General What does cud mean in English? If you want to learn cud in English, you will find the translation here, along with other translations from Kinyarwanda to English. We hope this will help you in learning languages

Meaning of cud with pronunciation - English 2 Bangla

Definitions and Meaning of chews in English chew noun. biting and grinding food in your mouth so it becomes soft enough to swallow Synonyms: chewing, manduction, mastication; a wad of something chewable as tobacco Synonyms: chaw, cud, plug, quid, wad; verb. chew (food); to bite and grind with the teeth Synonyms: jaw, manducate, masticate Example Cud definition is - food brought up into the mouth by a ruminating animal from its rumen to be chewed again. How to use cud in a sentence Define cud. cud synonyms, cud pronunciation, cud translation, English dictionary definition of cud. n. 1. Food regurgitated from the first stomach to the mouth of a ruminant and chewed again. 2 / kʌd / food that has been eaten by an animal with more than one stomach, such as a cow, and that comes back into the animal's mouth to be chewed again before going into the second stomach: UK a cow chewing the cud US a cow chewing cud boy version of a slut. #1 - The first rule of C.U.D. is, you do not talk about C.U.D. #2 - The second rule of CUD is, you DO NOT talk about CUD. #3 - If someone says stop, backs out, retracts a sale, the upgrade is over. #4 - Two upgrades at a time. #5 - One benchmark at a time. #6 - No food, no drink #7 - CUD will go on as long as it has to. #8 - If this is your first day of CUD, you have to.

quid - Meaning in Bengal

That portion of food which is brought up into the mouth by ruminating animals from their first stomach, to be chewed a second time.Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat. [ Levit. xi. 3] A portion of tobacco held in the mouth and chewed; a quid anong ibig sabihin ng cud. Last Update: 2021-02-28. Usage Frequency: 1. Quality: Reference: Anonymous. English. Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: as the camel, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you. Tagalog. Gayon ma'y huwag ninyong kakanin ang. ru·men (ro͞o′mən) n. pl. ru·mi·na (-mə-nə) or ru·mens The first division of the stomach of a ruminant animal, in which most food collects immediately after being swallowed and from which it is later returned to the mouth as cud for thorough chewing. Also called paunch. [Latin rūmen; akin to Sanskrit romantha-, ruminant, chewing the cud.] ru.

CHEW; CUD. choo, chu, (ma`aleh gerah, literally bringing up (American Revised Versions margin), i.e. chewing the cud, from garar, to roll, ruminate): One of the marks of cleanliness, in the sense of fitness for food, of a quadruped, given in Leviticus 11:3 and Deuteronomy 14:6, is the chewing of the cud Cud Meaning in English (कड का अंग्रेज़ी में मतलब) जानिये क्स्क्स का अंग्रेजी में मतलब और इससे जुडी परिभाषाएं: A wad of something chewable as tobacco. A portion of tobacco held in the mouth and chewed; a quid. Bangla meaning of chimera is as below... Lern More About Chimera ⇒Wiki Definition of Chimera Cud Cactus Compress Coma Cosh Kalpana Download View Count : 997075. SolaimanLipi Hindi to Bengali Hindi to Arabic Hindi to Tamil Hindi to Telugu Hindi to Urd Synonyms for cud include quid, chew, bolus, food, rumen, twist, cake, pigtail, plug and chaw. Find more similar words at wordhippo.com Bangla Meaning of Cadge Thanks for using this online dictionary, we have been helping millions of people improve their use of the bangla language with its free online services. Bangla meaning of cadge is as below..

Cud in English. Cud Meaning and Kinyarwanda to English ..

  1. the description is the meaning and history write-up for the name; separate search terms with spaces; search for an exact phrase by surrounding it with double quotes. example: lord of the rings matches names from the novel 'The Lord of the Rings' this field understands simple boolean logic. force a term to be included by preceding it with a + sig
  2. Reared meaning in Bengali. Rear meaning in Bengali - পশ্চাৎভাগ, শেষ অংশ; | English - Bangla & English (E2B) Online Dictionary. ইংরেজি - বাংলা Online অভিধান। Providing the maximum meaning of a word by combining the best sources with us English to Bengali Dictionary: rear
  3. at quidem Find more words
  4. Noun (1) cud-chewing mammal used as a draft or saddle animal in desert regions. It has more than 500,000 word meaning and is still growing. This English to Bangla dictionary also provides you an Android application for your offline use. The dictionary has mainly three features : translate English words to Bangla translate Bangla words to.

chews - Meaning in Bengal

  1. Meaning the meaning is Bengali form of Chakravarti. Chakrabarty Indian, Bengali Bengali form of Chakravarti. Chakraborti Indian, It can also come from the word cud meaning miracle, wonder. Cuello Spanish From Spanish meaning neck. Could be a nickname for a person with a stiff neck
  2. ating animals) are mentioned in ( Lev 11:3-26) and ( Deut 14:6-8 ). These are divided into 2 categories: clean.
  3. Please find below many ways to say miracle in different languages. This is the translation of the word miracle to over 100 other languages
  4. 8. They really don't want to go to the bazaar, not even to the AC retail stores for grocery or vegetable shopping, especially the new-age Bengali man. The way he tiptoes through the fish market makes the wife cringe. 9. Many men still make that slurping sound as they eat. They sneeze, cough and yawn louder

Difference Between Yoghurt and Curd Yogurt vs curd With a lot of food blogs mushrooming on the Net, more and more people are exchanging recipes across geographies. The result ' chaos and confusion over names of ingredients! One such pair that commonly fall victim to this syndrome is yogurt/yoghurt and curd. Yogurt or yoghurt is a dairy product commonly used [ Bangla meaning of concurrent is as below... Lern More About Concurrent Cud SolaimanLipi Download View Count : 993579. Kalpana Download View Count : 984657. Lipishree Download Hindi to Bengali Hindi to Arabic Hindi to Tamil Hindi to Telugu Hindi to Urd Bangla Meaning of Clunk Thanks for using this online dictionary, we have been helping millions of people improve their use of the bangla language with its free online services. Bangla meaning of clunk is as below.. 1. to hold (another person or thing) close or (of two people, etc) to hold each other close, as for affection, comfort, or warmth; embrace; hu

thwart definition: 1. to stop something from happening or someone from doing something: 2. to stop something from. Learn more Bangla Meaning of Cookie. Thanks for using this online dictionary, we have been helping millions of people improve their use of the bangla language with its free online services. Bangla meaning of cookie is as below... Write your word as a english and click to search button for the meaning of bangla

Cud Definition of Cud by Merriam-Webste

Bangla meaning of cider is as below... Lern More About Cider ⇒Wiki Definition of Cider Cud Compare Kalpana Download View Count : 1013149. SolaimanLipi Download View Count : 996063. Lipishree Hindi to Bengali Hindi to Arabic Hindi to Tamil Hindi to Telugu Hindi to Urd Meaning: Lotus stalk, Lotus Stalk, Origin Mrinal Sen is a renowned Bengali filmmaker based in Kolkata. Along with his contemporaries Satyajit Ray and Ritwik Ghatak, he is often considered to be one of the greatest ambassadors of Indian parallel cinema on the global stage. Loviisa, Moisty, Junefelt, Jho, Benhamadi, Teresio, Edip. Alt. Meaning Kali (/ ˈ k ɑː l iː /; Sanskrit: काली, IAST: Kālī, ISO: Kālī), also known as Kalika (Sanskrit: कालिका, Kālikā, ISO: Kālikā), is a Hindu goddess.Kali is the chief of the Mahavidyas, a group of ten Tantric goddesses who each form a different aspect of the mother goddess Parvati.. Kali's earliest appearance is that of a destroyer of evil forces Rhoticity in English is the pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant /r/ in all contexts by speakers of certain varieties of English.The presence or absence of rhoticity is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified

Tamil Meaning of Cud. Thanks for using this online dictionary, we have been helping millions of people improve their use of the TAMIL language with its free online services. Tamil meaning of Cud is as below... Cud : அசை ஊண் அசை போடுதல் அசை போட்டு வாங்கும். How to say cud in English? Pronunciation of cud with 1 audio pronunciation, 10 synonyms, 1 meaning, 10 translations, 1 sentence and more for cud

117.32 ac from NB CUD, O&I-2 CUD, R-15 CUD W/ SHOD-1 TO SC CUD, O&I-2 CUD , R-15 CUD W/ SHOD-1: Approved 4-15-08: Yes: Z-032-07: 2.81 ac from O&I-3 to O&I-1 CUD w/ SHOD-4 to remain: Approved 10-02-07: Yes: Z-031-07: 66.0 ac from R-6 & R-10 to R-4: Denied 11-20-07: No: Z-030-07: 87.47 ac revised NCOD regulations: Approved 10-16-07: Yes: Z-029-07. Gaulish name meaning high forehead, from the Proto-Celtic elements * axkros, * akros high, noble, great and * talus front, forehead. Banna f Gaulish. Derived from Gaulish benna peak, summit. This word also denoted a sort of carriage with four wheels. Bannus m Gaulish. Derived from Gaulish benna peak, summit

Cud - definition of cud by The Free Dictionar

Category filter: Show All (152)Most Common (3)Technology (56)Government & Military (35)Science & Medicine (22)Business (34)Organizations (24)Slang / Jargon (3) Acronym Definition CID Caller Identification CID Criminal Investigative Division (US) CID Cubic Inch Displacement CID Criminal Investigation Department CID Community Improvement District CID. ruminate definition: 1. to think carefully and for a long period about something: 2. (of particular types of animal) to. Learn more If you want to learn cil in English, you will find the translation here, along with other translations from Welsh to English. We hope this will help you in learning languages. Here is cil meaning in English: cud Edit. Cud in all languages nonchalant definition: 1. behaving in a calm manner, often in a way that suggests you are not interested or do not care. Learn more

CUD meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionar

Bengali equivalent: ফুটো পাত্রে জল ঢালা phuTO patre jol Dhala; Hindi equivalent: Bhains ke aage been bajaave, bhains khadi paguraae (buffalo busily chews cud ignoring the flute being played to it). Kannada equivalent: Katthe munde kindari baarisida haage (playing musical instrument in front of a donkey) Clean and Unclean Animals 2 Say to the Israelites, 'Of all the beasts of the earth, these ones you may eat: 3 You may eat any animal that has a split hoof completely divided and that chews the cud. 4 But of those that only chew the cud or only have a divided hoof, you are not to eat the following: The camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you We keep adding meaning and other info to all names. So keep visiting again . to get this name's meaning and other information. Search Ends When Sharing Starts If you already know the meaning of Cudmit in English or in any other language, Please contribute that will helpful for other users, also you can edit any data like gender, pronunciation and origin to improve accuracy kaj si be? (Macedonian>English) nomenclature (English>Welsh) for your kind information that hindi meaning (English>Hindi) सेक्सी पिक्चर endian (English>Hindi) i'm chilled to the bone (English>Russian) cyclopentadéc (French>English) directa (Spanish>Italian) omae wa baka desho (Japanese>English) masamang nilalang (Tagalog>English) female pennis (English>Tamil) cud. Chew the cud: Ponder over something: 94. Play second fiddle: Take an unimportant part: 95. Above board: Honest and open: 96. Through thick and thin: Under all conditions: 97. Put a spoke in one's wheel: To upset one's plans: 98. At sixes and sevens: In a disordered/disorganized manner, chaotic: 99. At home: Comfortable: 100. Alpha and omega.

Bangla Meaning of Crucible

Urban Dictionary: cu

Start studying Manhattan Prep 1000 GRE Words: Definitions ( Bangla Meaning). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Select Page. meaning of cuddling in english. by | Jan 7, 2021 | Uncategorized | 0 comments | Jan 7, 2021 | Uncategorized | 0 comment Dabb meaning in Punjabi. Definition of dabb in the Definitions.net dictionary.Meaning of dabb.What does dabb mean? Information and translations of dabb in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web English Punjabi Dictionary and Translation. This site provides an English to Punjabi Dictionary and a Punjabi to English Dictionary Cuddalore (Lok Sabha constituency) - Cuddalore is a Lok Sabha (Parliament of India) constituency in Tamil Nadu. Cuddalore Port Junction railway station - Cuddalore Port Railway Junction (Code: CUPJ), is a junction station serving the town of Cuddalore. The station is a part of the Trichy division of the Southern Railway Zone and its official c

How to say Cud fermi in Spanish? Pronunciation of Cud fermi with 1 audio pronunciation, 8 translations and more for Cud fermi Prominent examples. In March 2014 the Royal Mint confirmed a pair of mule 2014 bullion coins struck in 999 fine silver: approximately 38,000 £2 Lunar Horse coins and 17,000 £2 Britannia coins. The Lunar Horses were struck with the denticled Britannia obverse while the Britannias were stuck with the non-denticled Lunar Horse obverse.. In February 2009, Coin World reported that some 2007. plug Definitions and meaning in English. noun: blockage consisting of an object designed to fill a hole tightly. a wad of something chewable as tobacco. blatant or sensational promotion. electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of an internal-combustion engine and ignites the gas by means of an electric spark Deuteronomy Chapter 14. Verses 1-29: This chapter continues the condemnation of apostasy with an emphasis on holiness. It applies the third commandment and its restrictions. The contents of the chapter are: (1) A prohibition of pagan rites (verses 1-2); (2) A prohibition against eating unclean flesh, which is called an abomination (verses 3-20.

Select your prefered input and type any Sanskrit or English word. Enclose the word in for an EXACT match e.g. yoga That which parteth the HOOF and cheweth the cud among the beasts shall ye eat. English to Bangla Dictionary: hoof. Meaning and definitions of hoof, translation in Bangla language for hoof with similar and opposite words. Also find spoken pronunciation of hoof in Bangla and in English language. Tags for the entry 'hoof Contextual translation of cud horns into Tagalog. Human translations with examples: atlis, sungay, kinaon, agurong, tambuli, torotot, bumusina, sungay ng usa Sasha Name Meaning in Bengali not muslim names,plz can u confirm were u found out that these 2 names are muslim names as says in your name site,plz cud u reply the correct answer asap .thamk u. aisha , bradford Thu 08 Mar, 2012. দিনের নাম Kabeer

Chew the cud definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now The crowded streets of Kolkata too, have their own niceties, like this one-'pagol chagol'. Translating into 'mad goat' in English, this popular Bengali insult is commonly hurled around at idiots. Meet professional cuddlers, travel buddies, massage therapists, snuggle buddies, and tour guides near you. Never be alone with a cuddle buddy, cuddle therapy, massage therapy, and the best cuddling service around Dita Von Teese wore a royal purple silk taffeta gown by Vivienne Westwood, complete with train and petticoats worn over a Mr. Pearl couture corset, topped off by a tricorne hat by Stephen Jones, while Manson wore a John Galliano black silk taffeta tuxedo with velvet trim and a hat also crafted by Stephen Jones

List of ethnic slurs - Wikipedi

An event that appears inexplicable by the laws of nature and so is held to be supernatural in origin. Many religious beliefs are based on miracles. An example of a miracle associated with Muhammad is the splitting of the moon. 2018 July 1, Gene Editing, in Last Week Tonight with John Oliver, season 5, episode 18, HBO: That's fantastic! And he. Palindromes are the most symmetrical words and phrases you'll ever encounter. Also, the most amusing, when you think of the nonsense and ambiguous meanings that can come from trying to achieve perfect syntactical harmony. Here are ten for those who like to read things front to back (and then back to front again). Not on the list are the ones we've heard a million times (e.g. race car. Receding gums are a condition in which your gums pull back from the tooth surface, exposing the root surfaces of your teeth. It is a form of gum disease A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as humps on its back. Camels have long been domesticated and, as livestock, they provide food (milk and meat) and textiles (fiber and felt from hair).Camels are working animals especially suited to their desert habitat and are a vital means of transport for passengers and cargo

Video: What is Wrong with Baadshah's Genda Phool

A ruminant, of the genus Giraffa, of the African savannah with long legs and highly elongated neck, which make it the tallest living animal; yellow fur patterned with dark spots, often in the form of a network; and two or more short, skin-covered horns, so-called; strictly speaking the horn-like projections are ossicones.· A giraffe unicycle. CID TV Series. CID All Characters Real Names with Photographs information and details has been provided here. CID is stands for Crime Investigation Department which is longest running crime detective series in India. It was first aired on 21st January, 1998 and running till date against all odds meaning in tagalog. Tagalog. ernia inguinale (Italian>English) gebeuren (Dutch>English) cud meaning (English>Tagalog) application guide (English>Vietnamese) im on top (English>Spanish) bolo dost (Hindi>Bengali) ich muss dich leider vertrösten (German>English) zoals toegelicht. śabdatattva: literally the essence of a word; the ultimate sense conveyed by the word which is termed स्फोट by the Vaiyakaranas. Philosophically this Sabdatattva or Sphota is the philosophical Brahman of the Vedantins, which is named as Sabdabrahma or Nadabrahma by the Vaiykaranas,and which appears as the Phenomenal world of the basis of its own powers such as time factor and the. Rezoning is the act of modifying the Official Zoning Map. A rezoning case may be initiated by an individual, a group of individuals, or the City. However it is initiated, the case must go through a legally-defined process. For more information on the rezoning process, visit the Rezoning page

Find link is a tool written by Edward Betts.. searching for Cud 456 found (499 total) alternate case: cud Coalition for Unity and Democracy (2,072 words) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article ቅንጅት ለአንድነት እና ዴሞክራሲ), commonly referred to by its English abbreviation CUD, or occasionally CDU; its Amharic abbreviation, used in Ethiopia, is. roma: m. (of uncertain derivation, but see 1.ropa-) a hole, cavity : roma: n. water roma: m. the city Rome (see bṛhad-roma-and next) roma: m. plural Name of a people roma: 3. 4. roma-. See under 1.roman-.: roma: in compound for roman-.: roma (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') equals roman-(see a--dīrgha--, sa-r-).romabaddha: mfn. hairs-bound, woven with hairs. Resource List This list is a selected bibliography of books, pamphlets, reports, articles, papers, and other media pertaining to universal design Hangouts Meet and Hangouts Chat were rebranded to Google Meet and Google Chat in April 2020. We announced in 2019 that we would be migrating all classic Hangouts users to the new Meet and Chat products. In order to provide enterprise-grade online video conferencing to everyone, we announced a free version of Google Meet in May 2020 A Google ingyenes szolgáltatása azonnal lefordítja a szavakat, kifejezéseket és weboldalakat a magyar és több mint 100 további nyelv kombinációjában

Alpacas are ruminants, meaning they chew their cud. They require lots of good, clean water for drinking. Alpacas also need minerals that are specifically formulated for alpacas. Shelter Alpacas are easy to care for, compared to most other kinds of livestock. They live in many climates and are very adaptable Contextual translation of teri maa ki chut meaning into English. Human translations with examples: تيري ما كي, teri maa ki, pagal lovdi, your mother's pussy Today's dish is special and very primitive. The only other way to explain the importance of a traditional Payesh/Rice Pudding is to compare it with Champagne. If you can understand the importance of Champagne to bring in a family celebration then you can probably understand the importance of Payesh. Or say, cutting a cake o

English to Bangla Meaning of chew - bdword

Vile definition is - morally despicable or abhorrent. How to use vile in a sentence. Synonym Discussion of vile Words With Friends - 3 letter words (2019, with update courtesy Alan Wu) BAA BAD BAE BAG BAH BAI BAL BAM BAN BAP BAR BAS BAT BAY BED BEE BEG BEL BEN BET BEY BFF (really? Yes) BIB BID BIG BIN BIO BIS BIT BIZ BOA BOB BOD BOG BOL BON BOO BOP BOS BOT BOW BOX BOY BRA BRO BRR BUB BUD BUG BUM BUN BUR BUS BUT BUY BYE BYS To Meat or Not to Meat, the saga of a Bengali Brahmin. So! That happened! Never in her life did Andy think she would be called an asshole for being a non-vegetarian but there he was, the guy she lovingly called The Tamilian, saying she is as much of an asshole as him, coz she wants to cook meat at home A Visa card is a payment card that uses the Visa network and is branded by Visa. The company began with just credit cards, but it has since branched out to include debit, prepaid, and gift cards.

What is Cow Cud and Why Do Cows Chew Their Cud? U

PLUG meaning in hindi, PLUG pictures, PLUG pronunciation, PLUG translation,PLUG definition are included in the result of PLUG meaning in hindi at kitkatwords.com, a free online English hindi Picture dictionary Leviticus 11:15 Every raven after his kind;. The red raven, night raven, the water raven, river raven, wood raven, etc. This also includes crows, rooks, pies, jays, and jackdaws. The raven was with the Heathens sacred to Apollo, is a voracious creature, and so reckoned among unclean ones, and unfit for food Urial, (Ovis orientalis), medium-size, rather stout-bodied wild sheep, distributed from northwest India and Ladakh to southwest Russia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran. Six to nine subspecies are usually recognized; they differ in the colour and size of the winter neck-ruff of males, as well as i

Gore Definition of Gore at Dictionary

A suave & high profile Bengali man is known as Coco to his family because he loved & drank a lot of Coca Cola in his childhood . This Coco has had to suffer the ignominy of thinking that a pretty girl was calling out to him when in actuality she was calling out to her dog, Coco. And it's not just the boys who have funny nicknames 3. Rub your gold across a ceramic plate. Set an unglazed ceramic plate firmly on a countertop or table. Hold your gold item in your hand. Scrape the item against the plate. Watch to see if a streak or line of any type appears. A black line indicates that the item is not gold or is plated Powdered milk (also known as dry milk) is a powder. It's a dairy product that has had the liquid removed. Evaporated milk is canned cow's milk and a liquid. It is sometimes called unsweetened condensed milk. Evaporated milk is not the same thing as condensed milk. Condensed milk is also reduced by 60 percent, but it is heavily sweetened, making. According to these, anything that chews the cud and has a completely split hoof is ritually clean, but those animals that only chew the cud or only have cloven hooves are unclean. Both documents explicitly list four animals as being ritually impure: The camel, for chewing the cud without its hooves being divided. shapha Chand keno asena amar ghore. E F. chand keno asea amar ghore. E Am. Se abhimanini ajo to boleni. G F. abhimanini ajo to boleni. G F. asbe kina se firea ooooo

Cream the butter and beat in the sugar and lemon mixture. Add the eggs, 1 at a time, and then add the lemon juice and salt. Mix until combined. Pour the mixture into a 2 quart saucepan and cook. Tamil dictionary. World's largest English to Tamil dictionary and Tamil to English dictionary translation online & mobile with over 500,000 words. அகராதி Pronunciation : case sensitive: see the pronunciation key for a guide on how to write the sounds; sounds can only be searched in names that have been assigned pronunciations * is a wildcard that will match zero or more letters in the pronunciation example: *lee matches names which end with the sound lee _ is a wildcard that will match exactly one letter in the pronunciatio cloth - tamil meaning of இழை. Thanks for using this online dictionary, we have been helping millions of people improve their use of the TAMIL language with its free online services Helping deaf children develop complete language. Building the foundation for literacy. Empowering cuers, families, and professionals. We are the National Cued Speech Association. Hide Messaging. Skip to the Learn section. Whether it be: Advocating for cuers' rights through legislation. Supporting Individualized Education Programs that include.