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Introduction to Neoplasia ppt

Neoplasia - Latin, new growth‟Cancer - crab‟Rupert Willis, 1950s. 4. Definition A neoplasm is : abnormal mass of tissue which grows in an uncoordinated manner even after cessation of the stimuli which evoked the change. 5. Tumor = neoplasm Benign tumor = innocent-acting tumor Malignant tumor = evil-acting tumor. 6 Introduction to Neoplasia - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 21e110-ZDc1

Neoplasia 1: Introduction - Neoplasia 1: Introduction terminology oncology: the study of tumors neoplasia: new growth (indicates autonomy with a loss of response to growth controls) types of The PowerPoint PPT presentation: NEOPLASIA is the property of its rightful owner NEOPLASIA. Today's Goals and Objectives. 1. Define neoplasm 2. Define benign and malignant 3. Differentiate benign from malignant neoplasms based on histologic appearance 4. Explain how neoplasms are named and infer properties of a neoplasm from its name 5. Explain what grade is, and how it impacts prognosi Chapter 1: Introduction to neoplasia. Our discussion of neoplasia begins with a review of some definitions, the types of tissue growth, and the major differences between benign and malignant tumours. The next chapter discusses the biology of cancer, including cell cycle regulation, growth factors, apoptosis, and telomerase An Introduction to Cancer Biology Geoff Mitchell April 24, 2007 Learning Objectives The students will be able to: Identify the 3 most prevalent cancers for a person of their gender Define cancer Explain why cancer is a genetic disease even though its heritability is rather low Compare the functions of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes Explain why tumor suppressors are often the 1st genes. Neoplasia, page 7 Cancer incidence Incidence Mortality Male Female Male Female 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 3. Geographic and environmental variables (Figure not in book) Environmental factors are the predominant cause of the most common sporadic cancers. Age Cancer incidence increases with age/accumulation of somatic mutations

Video: Neoplasia - SlideShar

An Introduction to Cancer 2. Chapter 1 Cancer: Descriptive Overview Cancer is a disease in which cells propagate uncontrollably. These cells can come from Neoplasia denotes disorganized growth with an increase in the number of dividing cells. Neoplasia implies a tumor. Neoplasia is the result of a loss o Defnition of Neoplasia A neoplasm is an abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimuli which evoked the change - Willis Genetic changes Autonomous Clonal N omenclature - Benign Tumor

Neoplasia Physical Therapists By 2014 PPT. Presentation Summary : However, dysplasia does not necessarily progress to cancer. Mild to moderate changes that do not involve the entire thickness of epithelium may be reversible •Introduction aiming at: 1.Introducing you to the course. 2. What is pathology ? 3. What do pathologists do? The course •Two credit hours course •Three main subjects will be covered: 1. Cell injury 2. Inflammation 3. Neoplasia. reference - Robbins basic pathology, Kumar Abbas and Aster, 10th edition. - My slides are a summary of the book. Unit Outline Week No. Module 1 Introduction 2 Inflammation 3 Immunity and disease 4 Lifestyle and disease 5 Blood vessels and disease 6 Blood and blood disorders 7 Neoplasia 1 8 Forensic Pathology & Mid Sem Test 9 Neoplasia 2 10 Environment and disease 11 Infection and disease 12 Genetics and disease 13 Research and course revie TUMOR TULANG DAN SENDI. INTRODUCTION TO ORTHOPAEDIC ONCOLOGY. DEPARTMENT OF ORTHOPAEDIC AND TRAUMATOLOGY FACULTY OF MEDICINE HASANUDDIN UNIVERSITY NEOPLASMS OF ORTHOPAEDIC ONCOLOGY LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM TUMOR : enlargement of a body part • Inflammation swelling • Accumulation of fluid haematoma, effusion, pus collection • Neoplasms • Others NEOPLASM: neoplasia of a tissue • Abnormal. Neoplasia Fahd Al Mulla Molecular Laboratory PPT. Presentation Summary : Molecular Basis of Neoplasia. Neoplasia. Neoplasia is defined as: an abnormal mass of tissue, resembling the tissue of origin, the growth of which exceeds an

PPT - Introduction to Neoplasia PowerPoint presentation

  1. Neoplasia is new growth. The terms benign and malignant correlate to the course of the neoplasm. Benign neoplasms stay localized in one place; malignant neoplasms invade surrounding tissue and, in most cases, can metastasize to distant organs.To become neoplastic, a normal cell must develop mutations that allow it to no longer obey boundaries of adjacent cells, thus allowing for uncontrolled.
  2. An introduction to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) Invasive cervical cancers are usually preceded by a long phase of preinvasive disease. This is characterized microscopically as a spectrum of events progressing from cellular atypia to various grades of dysplasia or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) befor
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  4. In a person born with two normal copies of a tumor suppressor gene, both must be inactivated by mutation before tumor formation occurs. BRCA1 and BRCA2, which predispose to familial early-onset breast cancer and ovarian cancer, are tumor suppressor genes. LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Goal 1: Genetic Basis of Neoplasia
  5. Free Download Introduction To Dermatiology PowerPoint Presentation. Cutaneous markers Neoplasia Acanthosis nigricans, Dermatomyositis Secondaries & infiltrates Non-neoplastic Sarcoidosis and xanthomas, Endocrine: e.g. necrobiosis, PTM Inherited conditions Neurofibromatosis Tuberous sclerosis.

PPT - NEOPLASIA PowerPoint presentation free to view

  1. 1. Introduction Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a prem alignant cervical disease that is also called cervical dysplasia or cervical interstitial neoplasia or cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (CSIL). The nomenclature in use in the past was mild, moderate, an d severe dysplasia, these wer
  2. Neuroangiography Invasive procedure requiring insertion of a catheter through the femoral artery up to the carotid. Iodinated contrast material is injected into the caroti
  3. Neoplasia summary The prognosis of a patient with any type of neoplasm depends on a number of factors including: the rate of growth of the tumor, the size of the tumor, the tumor site, the cell type and degree of differentiation, the presence of metastasis, responsiveness to therapy, and the general health of the patient

  1. INTRODUCTION TO CYTOLOGY: A CASE-BASED APPROACH . Cytologic specimens can be obtained by fine needle aspiration of enlarged organs and masses, or impression smears of draining tracts or biopsy specimens. FNAs are performed using a needle attached to a syringe. 20-22 gauge needles are large enough to get a diagnostic sample, but small enough t
  2. Free Download Introduction to Cancer Genetics PowerPoint Presentation. Genetic Testing Genetic testing is usually carried out on DNA from a blood sample Technically difficult to locate the mutation in a cancer gene for a particular family Can take up to three months Usually need to first test a living relative who has already developed cancer Is only offered to high risk families (>20% chance.
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Although a neoplasm may not be difficult to recognize, the process of neoplasia is hard to define. The definition of neoplasm proposed in the early 1950s by Rupert Willis, a British pathologist, is probably the best: A neoplasm is an abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the surrounding normal tissues and persists in the same excessive manner. Welcome to ToxTutor. Introduction. ToxTutor is a self-paced tutorial covering key principles of toxicology and was adopted from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) chemical and toxicology databases. While a knowledge of anatomy and physiology is not required for viewing ToxTutor, the Introduction to the Human Body from the National Cancer. • Evaluation of Function of Follicular Neoplasia Performed by 123I • Proving Retrosternal Goiter. Performed by 123,131I • Proving Aberrant Thyroid Tissue in Thyroglossal duct. Performed by 99mTc • Proving Aberrant Thyroid Tissue in Ovary. Performed by 123,131I • Whole Body Scan, for Detection of Metastases, Related to Well Introduction: Terminology. Neoplasia. New growth or autonomous growth of tissue. Neoplasm. The lesion resulting from the neoplasia. Benign. Lesions characterized by expansive growth, frequently exhibiting slow rates of proliferation that do not invade surrounding tissues. Malignant

Introduction to Neoplasia and Immunohistochemistry Philippe Labelle, DVM, DACVP Antech Diagnostics. 12 th Biannual William MagraneBasic Science Course in Veterinary an Dear All • Welcome to this part of your course ( introduction to pathology) where we will study neoplasia in detail. • Please note that each lecture builds upon what's in the previous one, so make sure you don't miss any lecture if you want to understand the subject fully. This is especially important when we start talking about the genetic bases of cancer indicate neoplasia and should be checked by your veterinarian. Lymphoma - Lymphoma is a common form of neoplasia in dogs and cats. It is characterized by enlargement of one or many lymph nodes in the body. A contagious feline leukemia virus can be the cause of lymphoma in some cats. Testicles - Testicular neoplasia is rare in cats and common in.

Introduction to neoplasia McMaster Pathophysiology Revie

  1. Introduction • In 2018: It was estimated that there were over 9.5 million deaths caused by cancer worldwide, representing nearly 1 in 6 of all deaths. • By the year 2030: Cancer cases and cancer-related deaths worldwide are projected to increase to 21.4 million and 13.2 million, respectively.
  2. notes all chapters ppt, introduction to pathology powerpoint presentationrobbins basic pathology pdf is the book of human pathology or neoplasia page 2 malignant tumors, the official name is robbins basic pathology which sounds confusingly similar to robbins pathologic basis o
  3. Introduction to Pathology and Diagnostic Medicine Spring 2003 • What is pathology? Histological Grading of Colonic Neoplasia Normal Crypt Early Adenoma Late Adenoma Adenocarcinoma. From Cellular Pathology to Molecular Medicine PowerPoint Presentation Author
  4. Introduction to Infectious Diseases. Infectious diseases are disorders that are caused by organisms, usually microscopic in size, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that are passed, directly or indirectly, from one person to another. Humans can also become infected following exposure to an infected animal that harbors a pathogenic.
  5. Neoplasia is the abnormal growth and proliferation of abnormal cells or abnormal amounts of cells due to a benign or malignant process. There can be benign tumors, or neoplasms, and malignant ones
  6. Introduction 1 Methods 1 Results 4 Recommendations 5 Use of cryotherapy for prevention of CIN 5 Lesion size 5 use of cryotherapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia Executive Summary In 2008, cervical cancer was responsible for 275 000 deaths, of which about 88% occurre

Introduction to GitHub. Module 5 Units Beginner DevOps Engineer Administrator Developer Solution Architect Student GitHub Azure Learn to use key GitHub features, including issues, notifications, branches, commits, and pull requests. Learning objectives In this module, you will: Communicate with the project community in issues. Introduction. Cancer does not represent a single disease. Rather, cancer is a collection of myriad diseases with as many different manifestations as there are tissues and cell types in the human body, involving innumerable endogenous or exogenous carcinogenic agents, and various etiological mechanisms. Neoplasia also represents a unique. The weight of Zinger is still likely skewing this calculation (indirectly through the mean). T A ? P P W H 0 ޽h ? 33 ___PPT10 i . P o+ D =' = @ B + | * ( | r | S ` } x | c $ 8 @ H | 0 ޽h ? 33 ___PPT10 i . ` + D =' = @ B + p % ( m T ` ` T c $ X 99 ? ` 6 ] } =Table 2: Development and Relative Risk of Territorial Claim $>=G 6 H Q } L. Introduction to the Nervous System (1 hr.) Toxic Proteins and Neurodegenerative Diseases (1 hr.) CNS Neoplasia (1 hr.) - Dr. Louis: 19: Diseases of Skeletal Muscle (1 hr.) - Dr. Lidov: 20: Surgical Pathology and Other Gold Standards (1 hr.) - Dr. Badizadegan Molecular and Cytogenetic Analyses in Diagnostic Pathology (1 hr.) - Dr. Fletche

This animation is the first part of the series An Introduction to Cancer Biology, and explains the mechanism of abnormal signal transduction resulting in u.. Read chapter 5 of Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine, 7e online now, exclusively on AccessBiomedical Science. AccessBiomedical Science is a subscription-based resource from McGraw Hill that features trusted medical content from the best minds in medicine Introduction to Oncology. Oncology is the study and treatment of cancer, and their related diseases. A neoplasm or tumor is an abnormal uncontrolled growth of cells which develop faster than the surrounding normal tissues.. Most tumors appear as our canine and feline patients start to age An animation/video teaching the basics of how cancer forms and spreads. Topics include: mutation, tumor suppressors, oncogenes, angiogenesis, apoptosis, met.. View Introduction to Virology.ppt from MEDT 115 at Cavite State University Main Campus (Don Severino de las Alas) Indang. Introduction to Virology Tony Mazzulli, MD, FRCPC September 21

PPT - Introduction to Abdominal Radiology PowerPointGESTATIONAL TROPHOBLASTIC NEOPLASIA | Radiology Key

Ppt Robbins-neoplasia Powerpoint Presentations and

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  2. Introduction. The aim of this study was to describe trends in the diagnosis and treatment of women referred from the national screening program with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in the Netherlands, and to compare these trends with national guidelines and identify potential areas for improvement for the new primary high-risk HPV screening program
  3. NCI's Dictionary of Cancer Terms provides easy-to-understand definitions for words and phrases related to cancer and medicine
  4. Peptic Ulcer Disease: Introduction Peptic ulcer disease represents a serious medical problem. Approximately 500,000 new cases are reported each year, with 5 million people affected in the United States alone. Interestingly, those at the highest risk of contracting peptic ulcer disease are thos
  5. ant disorders characterised by the combined occurrence of tumours involving two or more endocrine glands and are categorised into four types ().MEN1 (or Wermer) syndrome patients develop neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the pancreas and anterior pituitary and parathyroid and adrenal cortical tumours1, 2 due to germline.

Introduction To Orthopaedic Oncology Biopsy Neoplasm

Introduction to Oral Neoplasia in the Dog & Cat. Brook A. Niemiec, DVM, FAVD, Diplomate AVDC. The oral cavity is a very common place to encounter neoplastic growths, which may range from benign to malignant. 1-3 The key to successful therapy of oral masses is early detection and definitive diagnosis. The best therapy for oral masses is complete. urethral_anatomy_ppt 2/3 Urethral Anatomy Ppt [Books] Urethral Anatomy Ppt Applied Radiological Anatomy-Paul Butler 2012-07-05 This expanded new, full colour edition of the classic Applied Radiological Anatomy is an exhaustive yet practical imaging resource of every organ system using all diagnostic modalities

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Introduction. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary tumor syndrome with a high degree of penetrance, that is caused by inactivating mutations of the tumor suppressor gene MEN1, and is characterized by a predisposition to a multitude of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors ().MEN1 was first described as early as 1903 by Erdheim and was defined by. Tutorial contains images and text for pathology educatio

Ppt Molecular-basis-of-neoplasia Powerpoint

Chapter 4. Neoplasia Pathology: The Big Picture ..

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) affects the uterus. The uterus is a part of the female reproductive system. It is pear-shaped, hollow, and located in the pelvis between the bladder and rectum. The uterus is also known as the womb, where a fetus or unborn baby, grows during pregnancy. The uterus has 2 sections: the cervix, which is the. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2) MOL.TS.286.A v2.0.2019 Introduction Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2) is addressed by this guideline. Procedures addressed The inclusion of any procedure code in this table does not imply that the code is under management or requires prior authorization. Refer to the specific Health Plan' Title: Anatomy Of Breast Powerpoint | m.kwc.edu Author: Victor M. Corman - 1999 - m.kwc.edu Subject: Download Anatomy Of Breast Powerpoint - Unit Outline Week No Module 1 Introduction 2 Inflammation 3 Immunity and disease 4 Lifestyle and disease 5 Blood vessels and disease 6 Blood and blood disorders 7 Neoplasia 1 8 Forensic Pathology & Mid Sem Test 9 Neoplasia 2 10 Environment and disease 11.

PPT - Modern Pathology (2007) 20, 320–325 Sean K LauNeoplasia Etiology and pathogenesis of cancer

Neoplasia Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to

Introduction. The concept of precancerous lesions that can be detected and eradicated to prevent cancer is an old one. The prime example in the United States has been the recognition that uterine cervical cancer could be prevented by population-based screening for precursor lesions Ocular Pathology Review Course- BSC 2016 . Dick Dubielzig, COPLOW . Phil Labelle, Antech Diagnostics . Carol Naranjo Freixa, IDEXX Laboratories, Barcelona, Spai

Duke Pathology - Neoplasi

Gestational trophoblastic disease is proliferation of trophoblastic tissue in pregnant or recently pregnant women. Manifestations may include excessive uterine enlargement, vomiting, vaginal bleeding, and preeclampsia, particularly during early pregnancy. Diagnosis includes measurement of the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin, pelvic. No Frames Version Pearson Education Retired Sites . Site Introduction; Site Navigatio Cervical cancer is a major public health issue in the world, especially in developing countries. It can be prevented through vaccination against HPV (primary prevention) and through screening and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (secondary prevention). Surgical methods for treatment of CIN are linked to complications such as bleeding and adverse pregnancy outcomes

Introduction To Dermatiology PowerPoint Presentatio

Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.These cancerous cells have the ability to invade other parts of the body. A number of types of pancreatic cancer are known. The most common, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, accounts for about 90% of cases, and the term pancreatic cancer is sometimes used to. A neoplasm (/ ˈ n iː oʊ p l æ z əm, ˈ n i ə-/) is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.The process that occurs to form or produce a neoplasm is called neoplasia.The growth of a neoplasm is uncoordinated with that of the normal surrounding tissue, and persists in growing abnormally, even if the original trigger is removed

Pathology of Neoplasia Neoplasms Benign Tumo

INTRODUCTION This document reviews the approach to the evaluation and treatment of the patient with suspected biliary neo-plasia (Table 2). A discussion of the role of endoscopy for ampullary adenomas can be found in another ASGE document.1 Patients with biliary neoplasia may present with abnor-mal imaging studies or serum chemistries or with symp Aetiology,pathogenesis,andpathologyofcervical neoplasia MJArends,CHBuckley,MWells Abstract Earlyepidemiologicalstudiesofcervical neoplasiasuggestedacausalrelationwit Putting aside temporarily whether precancer is best defined as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/CIN 3/AIS, or CIN 3/adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), or histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/AIS, there are a limited number of clinical actions available to clinicians and patients when faced with a cervical screening. 2.Oral Preneoplasticepithelial Proliferations - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site Neoplasia Introduction . By DR.HALA BADAWI LECTURER OF PATHOLOGY . Neoplasia. Characteristics . Gross picture. BENIGN. MALIGNANT. Not capsulated Areas of necrosis and haemorhage In solid organs : fixed irregular mass with ill defined borders Slideshow 1917544 by dan

PPT - Pathology of Cervical Carcinoma PowerPoint

Introduction to Cancer Genetics PowerPoint Presentatio

Introduction Aristolochia spp. Neoplasia. PPRL 2010 Animal Responses No change Sick- disease Attitude Appetite Weight Organ or system specific changes (Reproduction, Respiration, Cardiac Function, Hematologic PowerPoint Presentation Author: Bryan Stegelmeier Created Date Staging of Cancer. Stage 0 Cancer not found in surrounding tissue - in situ. Stage I Cancer found in surrounding tissue, no lymph node involvement. Stage II Usually lymph node involvement. Stage III Lymph nodes have clumped together and other lymph nodes are involved. Stage IV Metastatic cancer - has spread beyond the primary site to other organs in the bod background and introduction CUX1 (CUT-like homeobox 1) genes are present in all metazoans. In humans, the CUX1 gene is a transcriptional repressor and has been shown to play a significant role in cell cycle progression (specifically G1-S phase), cell differentiation, and morphogenesis Introduction. The East Carolina University Brody School of Medicine recently underwent a significant reconfiguration of the 2nd year medical student curriculum with an organ system-based alignment of content. BSOM's class of 2021 student average for the endocrine system component score of Step 1 was . below the national averag An introduction to cell and tissue cultures By Dr. Khaled Radad antibodies and understanding of neoplasia. • The technical improvements made by commercial supply of media and sera, control of contamination Microsoft PowerPoint - Lecture 1.ppt [Compatibility Mode

Chapter 17. Neoplasia: I. Classification, Nomenclature ..

Introduction to Pathology Dr. Jalal A. Jalal Assistant Professor of Pathology. Introduction to Pathology •Learning Resources •Neoplasia. •Immunopathology PowerPoint Presentation Author: sami Created Date: 11/13/2020 11:03:21 AM. Brief Introduction to Citrus Limonoids Jiaxing Li TAMU-College Station TAMUK-Citrus Center Bitterness problem in citrus industry Cause 1. The flavonoids e.g. naringin-- species related to pumello Cause 2. to inhibit formation of chemically-induced neoplasia in forestomach, small intestine, colon, lung, skin and oral of lab animals; -- to.

Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia—pathogenesis and

Welcome to ToxTutor - Toxicology MSD

This book covers only general pathology. And it is divided into ten chapters on - Introduction, Cell injury, Inflammation, Healing, Hemodynamic disorders, Genetic diseases, Immunopathology, Neoplasia, Metabolic diseases, Selected infectious diseases. Most of these topics represent the major categories of diseases that can occur in different. Law—a set of rules or regulations a government uses to regulate the conduct of people within a society. Jurisprudence—the study of law. U.S. system strongly tied to traditional Judeo-Christian values about right and wrong (stealing, perjury, murder, etc. Neoplasia A. discuss the differences types of altered cell growth 1. atrophy 2. hypoplasia The student will orally present their report and case study to the class to using PowerPoint. The Jan 14 Introduction to course & Ch 1 Introduction to Patholog Microsoft PowerPoint - 6-Neoplasia_I_new_08-1.ppt Author: CCNMTL Staff Created Date: 8/28/2008 11:43:20 AM.

Collaborate for free with an online version of Microsoft PowerPoint. Save presentations in OneDrive. Share them with others and work together at the same time ON THIS PAGE: You will find basic information about this disease and the parts of the body it may affect. This is the first page of Cancer.Net's Guide to Vaginal Cancer. Use the menu to see other pages. Think of that menu as a roadmap for this complete guide.About the vaginaThe vagina or birth canal is the opening through which menstrual blood leaves a woman's body and babie only general pathology. And it is divided into ten chapters on - Introduction, Cell injury, Inflammation, Healing, Hemodynamic disorders, Genetic diseases, Immunopathology, Neoplasia, Metabolic diseases, & Selected infectious diseases. Most of these topics represent the major categories of diseases that can occur in different organ systems. Fo The book Intraepithelial neoplasia is till date the most comprehensive book dedicated entirely to preinvasive lesions of the human body. Created and published with an aim of helping clinicians to not only diagnose but also understand the etiopathogenesis of the precursor lesions, the book also attempts to identify its molecular and genetic mechanisms. All of the chapters contain a. INTRODUCTION — Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a premalignant squamous lesion of the uterine cervix diagnosed by cervical biopsy and histologic examination [].The goal of management is to prevent possible progression to cancer while avoiding overtreatment since lesions can spontaneously regress and treatment can have morbid effects Intraepithelial Neoplasia PATIENTS (N) REGRESSION (%) PERSISTENCE (%) PROGRESSION TO CIS (%) PROGRESSION TO INVASION (%) CIN I 4504 57 32 11 1 CIN II 2247 43 35 22 5 CIN III 767 32 <56 - >12 CIN, cervical intraepithelial neoplasi; CIS, carcinoma in situ Östör AG : Natural history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia : A critical review. Int.